lesson 5


Finite Verbs



  • Understand what a finite verb is and the grammatical categories of person, number, and tense-mood. (We’ll leave off diathesis/padam for a later time.)
  • Be able to conjugate verbs of the “thematic” classes (first, fourth, sixth and tenth) in the present tense with parasmaipadám endings. Do the exercises on this page. We will go over at least the English to Sanskrit exercises in class.



Finite Verbs and the Present System

Adhyayanavidhiḥ: verbals; the present system (general introduction)

The parasmaipadám of thematic verbs in the present indicative

Adhyayanavidhiḥ: first class, the fourth class, the sixth class, and the tenth class (only look at the general notes and the present indicative)



This vocabulary list is available as a Quizlet set.

Note that you should memorize the verbal root as well as the present stem of each verb! To see the verbal root, just click on the word and look at the “root” (dhātuḥ).



For mastering the verbal paradigms, you can avail yourself of the following additional resources:

1. Conjugation

Practice the conjugation of thematic verbs in the parasmaipadám by writing out all 9 forms of the following verbs in the present tense (laṭ): √gam “go” (first class: but see note above!); √paś “see” (fourth class: but see note above!); √kṣip “throw” (sixth class); √gaṇ “count” (tenth class).

2. Conjugation

Write the Sanskrit verb (one word) that corresponds to the given English phrase. Use the given verbal root, although you will have to know which class it belongs to (see the vocabulary above). Be sure to conjugate the verb in the given person (first, second, or third) and number (singular, dual, or plural). If you prefer, you can use this Google Form.

  1. She writes (√likh)
  2. You [du.] become (√bhū)
  3. They [pl.] count (√gaṇ)
  4. You [sg.] want (√iṣ)
  5. We [du.] go (√gam)
  6. I touch (√spr̥ś)
  7. They [du.] ask (√prach)
  8. We [pl.] are pleased (√tuṣ)
  9. You [pl.] compose (√rac)
3. Translation: Sanskrit to English

Translate the following sentences into English.

  1. śiṣyau · lēkham · likhataḥ ·
  2. nr̥paḥ · ēva · kāvyam · racayati 
  3. śiṣyāṇām · vacanaiḥ · tuṣyāmi ·
  4. nr̥pasya · dānēna · dēvāḥ · na · tuṣyanti ·
  5. puruṣāḥ · pustakam · gr̥hāt · haranti ·
  6. api · gajam · paśyasi ·

    Note that api at the beginning of a sentence makes it a yes or no question!

  7. viśadēna · jalēna · vr̥kṣam · siñcāmi
  8. nr̥paḥ · puruṣaiḥ · dattāni · ratnāni · gaṇayati ·
  9. śāstram · paṭhatha · kāvyam · vā ·
  10. adya · ācāryāḥ · śiṣyān · na · tudāmaḥ ·
  11. nr̥paḥ · api · ācāryasya · pādau · spr̥śati ·
  12. puruṣāḥ · ca · gajāḥ · ca · viśadēna · jalēna · tuṣyanti ·
  13. nr̥pēṇa · racitam · kāvyam · paṭhāmaḥ ·
  14. nr̥pēṇa · kr̥tam · dēvāḥ · ēva · paśyanti ·
  15. vanē · api · śiṣyaḥ · smr̥tāni · śāstrāṇi · paṭhati ·
4. Translation: English to Sanskrit

Translate the following sentences into Sanskrit.

  1. The men [du.] throw the manuscript into the water.
  2. The teacher is composing a text (use śāstram) about (loc.) power.
  3. You [pl.] see the tree in the forest, do you not?
  4. The king’s men [pl.] lead the elephant from the forest.
  5. The elephant goes back to the forest.
  6. The teacher steals the manuscript given by the students.
  7. The students take the manuscript again from the teacher.
  8. Where do various desires lead people?
  9. Students, once led to knowledge, become teachers.
  10. You [pl.] only recite the sounds of the poem. You do not ask about (loc.) the meaning of the poem.
Review: Past Absolutive Participles

For a review, try to figure out the past absolutive particle or Ktáḥ participle of the verbs introduced in this lesson. You will have encountered some of them already in previous vocabulary lists. Check your answers against either the form listen in Whitney’s Roots, Verb-Forms and Primary Derivatives of the Sanskrit Language, or a dictionary like Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit–English Dictionary.


Try reading the following verses. I suggest the following:

  1. Try reading it in the Dēvanāgarī script, first in the “unanalyzed” version, then in the “analyzed” version (in which the sandhi between words has been undone). See if you can recognize words in each version.
  2. Try to identify sentences: subjects (in the nominative case) and verbs, and in some cases other words as well (for instance objects in the accusative case). Don’t worry about the meanings at this stage, but only the grammatical categories. Using the “analyzed” version, try to identify the case, number, and gender of every nominal form, and the person, number, and tense of every verbal form. (If you run into trouble, this is displayed in the “morphology” tab when you click the word in the “analyzed” version.)
  3. Then try to find meanings for each of the words. Some of them you will recognize, but others you will either have to look up in a dictionary, or click the word in the “analyzed” version to see the definition I’ve provided.
  4. Match the meanings to the grammatical categories and see if you can come up with a translation.