lesson 6


The Feminine Gender



  • Learn the paradigms of feminine nouns in ā, ī and ū and know how to use them in a sentence. Complete the exercises below, which we will review in class.
  • Familiarize yourself with the sandhi rule that turns high vowels (i, ī, u, ū, and ) into the corresponding semivowel before a dissimilar vowel.
  • For homework, submit one of the verses listed below under readings. You will write out the verse, try to give a translation, and also make a recording of you reciting the verse. You will submit the exercise on Canvas.



iKō yaṆ aCi

Adhyayanavidhiḥ: Combinations of vowels: glide formation

The Feminine

Adhyayanavidhiḥ: ā-stems; ī-stems; ū-stems; feminine stem forming suffixes



This vocabulary list is available as a Quizlet set.



You should try these exercises after studying the forms of feminine nouns and adjectives with stems in ā, ī, and ū. Below are some resources for doing so. As usual, I recommend writing out the paradigms and reciting them.

1. Declension: feminine ā-, ī-, and ū-stems

You can also complete this exercise on the accompanying Google Form.

  1. vidyā- f. — instrumental singular (tr̥tīyaikavacanam)
  2. strī- f. — genitive plural (ṣaṣṭhībahuvacanam)
  3. vadhū- f. — dative singular (caturthyēkavacanam)
  4. dēvī- f. — nominative plural (prathamābahuvacanam)
  5. sēnā- f. — accusative plural (dvitīyābahuvacanam)
  6. sarasī- f. — locative singular (saptamyēkavacanam)
  7. strī- f. — accusative dual (dvitīyādvivacanam)
  8. mālā- f. — instrumental dual (tr̥tīyādvivacanam)
  9. sarasī- f. — ablative singular (pañcamyēkavacanam)
  10. vidyā- f. — genitive singular (ṣaṣṭhyēkavacanam)
  11. dēvī- f. — vocative singular (sambōdhanaikavacanam)
  12. mālā- f. — instrumental plural (tr̥tīyābahuvacanam)
  13. bālā- f. — locative plural (saptamībahuvacanam)
  14. bālā- f. — vocative singular (sambōdhanaikavacanam)
2. Translation: Sanskrit to English
  1. vr̥kṣāḥ · nadyāḥ · kūlē · sthitāḥ ·
  2. vr̥kṣāḥ · nadyāḥ · kūlē · tiṣṭhanti ·
  3. bālāḥ · mālām · puṣpaiḥ · racayanti ·
  4. vidyāyāḥ · dānam · śrēṣṭham · dānam ·
  5. prajāḥ · nr̥pasya · dēvyāḥ · ca · caritāni · kathayanti ·
  6. nadyāḥ · kūlē · gr̥hē · vasati · ācāryaḥ ·
  7. dēvyā · ēva · mālā · spr̥ṣṭā · na · nr̥pēṇa ·
  8. dēvyaḥ · sarasīm · gacchanti ·
  9. bālē · kūlē · tiṣṭhataḥ ·
  10. vadhvai · lēkham · likhati ·
  11. jarāyāḥ · na · paśyati · gajam · api ·
  12. prajāḥ · dēvyāḥ · caritēna · tuṣyanti ·
  13. nr̥pasya · dēvyau · puṣpāṇām · mālāḥ · icchataḥ ·
  14. bālayā · api · ācāryaḥ · jitaḥ ·
3. Translation: English to Sanskrit
  1. Elephants take a dip (use √majj) in the waters of the lake.
  2. The men also take a dip in the lake. The women, however (use punaḥ), stay (√sthā) on the shore.
  3. The girls bring various garlands for [dat.] the queen.
  4. Various gifts are given by kings, but (use punaḥ) not knowledge.
  5. The king is staying in a house on the bank of the river made by the goddess.
  6. The girls [du.] are reciting a poem composed by the queen.
  7. The queen heard (by the queen was heard...) the sound of the girls in the charming forest.
  8. As a result of [abl.] the girl’s death, the king and the queen go to the forest.
  9. The girls [pl.] sprinkle the trees with water from the charming river.
  10. Old age and death do not consider (√gaṇ) a person’s riches (artha-), or even a person’s knowledge.
  11. The king was bound with garlands by the queens and tossed into the river.
4. Reading

You can now read the verses below. There will be words you don’t know. Just look them up in a dictionary, like Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionay (using the stem for nouns and adjectives, and the root for verbs). Or you can consult the definitions provided (click on “analyzed” to see the verse without external sandhi applied, and then you can click on each word to find information about its grammatical form and its meaning).

Choose one of the following verses, and (1) copy it out in the Dēvanāgarī script; (2) try to come up with a translation; and (3) make a recording of you reciting the verse. Then submit the entire assignment on Canvas.