lesson 7

samāsāḥ tatkiṁyadaś ca

Compounds and the T-K-Y Series



  • Understand the principles behind nominal compounds.
  • Know how to produce and analyze coordinative (dvandvaḥ) compounds. Complete the exercises for these compounds below.
  • Learn the declension of pronominal forms, including tát, yát, and kím, and familiarize yourself with the use of these words in sentences by completing the exercises below.



Compounds (Overview)

Adhyayanavidhiḥ: Nominal composition

Note that I’ve also translated the standard school-text on compounds, Samāsacakram. There will be a lot here that we haven’t discussed yet, but this has been the standard reference for elementary Sanskrit students for a long time.

Coordinative Compounds (dvandvāḥ)

Adhyayanavidhiḥ: Dvandvāḥ

The K-T-Y Series

Adhyayanavidhiḥ: the ta-ya-ka series; subordinate clauses





Here are some additional resources to help you learn the pronominal forms:

1. Coordinative compounds

Form coordinative compounds (dvandvāḥ) from the words given below. If you think the words might form a collective (samāhāradvandvaḥ), then write them as such. Also try to write the words in the preferred order within the compound.

  1. Rāvaṇa and Vibhīṣaṇa
  2. Yudhiṣṭhira, Bhīma, Arjuna, Nakula and Sahadēva
  3. Ambā, Ambikā, and Ambālikā
  4. Hands (hasta-, m.) and feet (pāda-, m.)
  5. Eyes (nayana-, n.) and ears (karṇa-, m.)
  6. Śiva (śiva-, m.) and Umā (umā-, f.)
  7. Goats (aja-, m.) and sheep (avika-, m.)
  8. Elephants (gaja-, m.) and elephant-drivers (hastipa-, m.)
  9. Birds (khaga-, m.) and bees (bhramara-, m.)
  10. Mortar (ulūkhala-, n.) and pestle (musala-, m.)
  11. A snake (sarpa-, m.) and a mongoose (nakula-)
  12. Jackals (śr̥gāla-, m.), dogs (kukkura-, m.) and wolves (vr̥ka-, m.)
2. Questions

Write and speak the following questions in Sanskrit, then form the corresponding indefinite version.

  1. What are you [sg.] reading?
    • You are reading something.
    • You aren’t reading anything.
  2. What do they [pl.] want?
    • They want something.
    • They don’t want anything.
  3. Where is she going?
    • She is going somewhere.
    • She is not going anywhere.
  4. When is the king going to the forest?
    • The king is going to the forest sometime.
    • The king is never going to the forest.
  5. Who is standing there?
    • Someone is standing there.
    • Noone is standing there.
  6. To whom has the letter been given?
    • The letter has been given to someone.
    • The letter has not been given to anyone.
  7. Whose poem are you [sg.] reciting?
    • You are reciting someone’s poem.
    • You are not reciting anyone’s poem.
  8. By whom has the letter been read?
    • The letter has been read by someone.
    • The letter not been read by anyone.
  9. Whom is the teacher hitting?
    • The teacher is hitting someone.
    • The teacher is not hitting anyone.
  10. In what is the student the best?
    • The student is the best in something.
    • The student is not the best in anything.
3. Relative-correlative sentences (Sanskrit to English)
  1. yasyām · sarasyām · majjati · gajaḥ · tasyām · nr̥paḥ · api · majjati ·
  2. tat · śāstram · śrēṣṭham · yasya · jñānēna · sarvē · anyē · nr̥pāḥ · jitāḥ ·
  3. yatra · vasati · dharmaḥ · tatra · prajāḥ · sukham · vasanti ·
    • Note: sukham or sukhēna = “happily”
  4. yā · dēvyā · ēva · racitā · mālā · tām · cōrayanti · tasyāḥ · gr̥hāt ·
  5. yadi · kiṁcit · śiṣyāḥ · paśyanti · tarhi · ācāryaḥ · api · tad · ēva · paśyati ·
  6. yam · gajam · paśyasi · saḥ · nr̥pasya · puruṣaiḥ · iha · nītaḥ ·
  7. nr̥pēṇa · dēvyai · dattaḥ · yaḥ · lēkhaḥ · tam · haranti · tē · puruṣāḥ ·
  8. kutra · gacchati · saḥ · nr̥paḥ · yasmai · ācāryēṇa · lēkhaḥ · dattaḥ ·
  9. tēna · ācāryēṇa · sarvē · anyē · ācāryāḥ · jitāḥ · yasya · śiṣyāḥ · śrēṣṭham · kāvyam · racayanti ·
  10. yaḥ · punaḥ · punaḥ · śrutaḥ · śabdaḥ · tasya · artham · pr̥cchāmi ·
4. Relative-correlative sentences (English to Sanskrit)
  1. The gods are not pleased with a king who has no dharma.
  2. The teacher has written a book about [locative] that which you are asking.
  3. The statements that they [dual] read in the manuscript are not at all (use ēva) clear.
  4. What are they so pleased with?
  5. Is anyone pleased with the poem you are reciting?
  6. They take away the vanquished king like they are leading a bound elephant.
  7. The king has knowledge, but the queen’s knowledge is something else altogether.
  8. The manuscript is in the house if you want it.
  9. How is the king gambling? Everyone sees him!
  10. The best poem is that in which the deeds of the greatest women are composed.
  11. There is no family at all that has not seen death [by which death has not been seen].
  12. If you want the garland that the girl is making, then I shall ask her.
    • Note: to express an action in the immediate future, you can use the present tense, optionally followed by the particle tāvat, e.g., gacchāmi tāvat “I’ll be going now.”