lesson 10


Non-finite Verbs

Verb forms that depend on another verb or noun.



  • Understand the principles of assimilation between consonants in internal sandhi and complete this exercise (from Emeneau’s book).
  • Understand the formation and function of the infinitive (ending in -tum) in Sanskrit, and know how to use it in a sentence.
  • Understand the formation and function of the various converbs in Sanskrit (those ending in -tvā, -ya/-tya, and -am), and know how to use them in a sentence.
  • For homework, look at verse 629 in the Mahāsubhāṣitasaṅgrahaḥ and come up with a translation. For each of the non-finite verb forms, make sure you note (a) what the verbal root and suffix is, and (b) what verbs they either modify (in the case of converbs) or complement (in the case of infinitives).




Adhyayanavidhiḥ: internal consonant sandhi (look at voice, aspiration, retroflexion (which will be a review), and depalatalization

The Infinitive

Adhyayanavidhiḥ: infinitives

The Converb

Adhyayanavidhiḥ: converbs





The rules for assimilation in internal sandhi are probably best practiced by using the exercises in Emeneau’s Sanskrit Sandhi and Exercises. I have converted all of the exercises into Google Forms, and the following are relevant for this topic:

To become familiar with the infinitive forms of verbs, I suggest looking over the cumulative vocabulary list up to this lesson, and (1) first guessing what the infinitive form may be based on what I’ve told you in the lecture, then (2) looking up the infinitive form by inputting the root either into The Sanskrit Heritage Grammarian or looking it up in Whitney’s Roots (Whitney lists the infinitives under “Verb[al nouns]”). You can check also with this Quizlet set that I put together.

To become familiar with the converb forms, I suggest doing exactly the same thing (note that the Sanskrit Heritage website calls converbs “absolutives” and Whitney again listes them under “Verb[al nouns]”). Here is the Quizlet set for the converb forms.

1. Infinitives (Sanskrit to English)
  1. kim · vyāhartum · icchasi ·
  2. sarvam · śāstram · na · kaścit · avagantum · samarthaḥ ·
  3. śiṣyāḥ · kāvyam · racayitum · yatantē ·
  4. tēna · saha · vyavahartum · icchāmi ·
  5. jñānam · labdhum · satatam · yatadhvē ·
  6. na · kadācit · tat · anubhavitum · icchāmi ·
  7. sarvaḥ · saṁskr̥tam · paṭhitum · samarthaḥ ·
  8. ētat · pustakam · na · kēnacit · paṭhitum · śakyam ·
  9. ēkaḥ · puruṣaḥ · na · tāni · ratnāni · cōrayitum · alam ·
  10. sarvē · ēkasmin · āsanē · na · niṣīditum · samarthāḥ ·
2. Infinitives (English to Sanskrit)
  1. Everyone is able to see it.
  2. It can be seen but not touched.
  3. They come together in order to recite the poem.
  4. He is by no means [“not in any way”] capable of leading this army.
  5. His desire is to live in the forest.
  6. The sacrifice can only be performed [“sacrificed”] by a certain priest.
  7. Who is capable of speaking in such a way with the queen?
  8. One who desires to understand recites the text constantly.
3. Converbs (Sanskrit to English)
  1. nirdiṣṭē · āsanē · niṣīdya · śiṣyaiḥ · saha · vyāharati ·
  2. svasmāt · gr̥hāt · āgatya · iha · niṣīdati ·
  3. sarvam · pustakam · paṭhitvā · svagr̥ham · gacchati ·
  4. saḥ · a-matvā · vyāharati ·, sā · tu · avagamya ·
  5. svasyāḥ · vadhvāḥ · lēkham · labdhvā · tam · paṭhitvā · viṣīdati ·
  6. lēkhasya · artham · avagatya · śaṅkatē
  7. agnimitrēṇa · para-sēnām · īkṣitvā · nr̥paḥ · jitaḥ ·
    • Note: Agnimitra- is a name, and para- can mean “other” or “enemy.”
  8. śiṣyēṇa · pustakam · paṭhitvā · jalē · kṣiptam ·
  9. api · hataḥ · rāmēṇa · rāvaṇaḥ · vanē · uṣitvā ·
    • Note: Rāma- and Rāvaṇa- are names.
  10. sarvam · ēvam · sampadya · rāma-sītābhyām · rōcatē ·
4. Converbs (English to Sanskrit)

First, try to understand the sequence of actions represented by the English sentence. Then try to use a Sanskrit converb in your translation.

  1. He points out a seat to him and then he himself [use the indeclinable word svayam] sits down.
  2. She walks in the forest while thinking of various tasks.
  3. After waiting for a long time [use the indeclinable adverb ciram] she received the letter.
  4. On seeing the strength of the army, the king doubts his own strength.
  5. He experiences fear on seeing an elephant.
  6. On seeing the elephant he remembered the śāstras.
  7. The elephants, having taken a dip in the lake, leave in the evening [use the indeclinable adverb sāyam].
  8. Although they try again and again, they do not understand the statement.
    • Note: For “although” use api with the converb.