- Learn the formation of the passive/impersonal stem for verbs in the four tense-moods of the present system (as well as the future).
- Learn the forms of the proximate demonstrative pronoun/adjective idám.
- Understand how adverbs work and some of the common suffixes used to form adverbs.
The pronoun idám
1. Passive verbs
Produce the specified form of the requested verb in the passive/impersonal construction.
- √kr̥ “do,” 3rd person singular optative
- √śru “hear,” 3rd person singular imperative
- √yaj “sacrifice,” 1st person dual optative
- √hā “abandon,” 1st person singular present
- ā-√i “come,” 3rd person singular imperative
- √ās “sit,” 3rd person plural optative
- √pac “cook,” present participle, masculine nominative singular
- √dā “give,” 3rd person plural imperfect indicative
- vi-√dhā “create,” present participle, feminine nominative plural
- √ji “conquer,” 1st person plural optative
- adhi-√i “study,” present participle, masculine nominative plural
- √smr̥ “remember,” 2nd person plural present indicative
- √paṭh “recite,” 3rd person dual imperfect indicative
- √sthā “stand,” 3rd person singular imperative
- √labh “obtain,” 3rd person singular imperfect indicative
- √grah “grasp,” 3rd person singular present indicative
- √dr̥ś “see,” 2nd person singular present indicative
- √jñā “know,” 1st person singular imperfect indicative
- √vac “speak,” 3rd person singular imperative
- √śās “teach,” present participle, feminine accusative plural
2. Sanskrit-to-English translation
- yatō ’sya munēr dōṣāḥ na kaiścid dr̥śyantē tatō taṁ bahu manyāmahē
- Note: bahu-√man means “to think highly of, to regard, to esteem.”
- ayam atīva vaktīti sarvadā nindyē atō maunaṁ karavāṇi
- na sarvatra dōṣā nindyantē kvacit kathañcit kaścid dōṣō guṇībhavati
- imāṁs trīn vandyaguṇān bhikṣūn dr̥ṣṭvā rājñā svaputraṁ ādāya grāmō ’gamyata
- yatō ’rakṣaṇīyaṁ rakṣyatē ’nēnāhēyaṁ ca hīyatē tatō ’syōpadēśō na śrūyatē
- pūrvaṁ idam aucyata śaktimadbhya upadēśō dīyatām iti idānīṁ tu idam ucyatē dhanavadbhya ēva dātavya iti
- tvayānanyamanaskēnēmāni kāvyāni ramaṇīyam apaṭhyanta
- yad atīva duṣkaraṁ kāryam ācāryēṇāsmabhyam adīyata tat kaṣṭaṁ ēva kriyēta
- durmanōbhiḥ sadā kasmiṁścit kāvyē dōṣā ēva dr̥śyantē na caibhir ēkō guṇaḥ draṣṭuṁ śakyatē
- ayaṁ sāṅkhyapuruṣō na kiñcit karōti
- Note: Sāṅkhya is a branch of Indian philosophy that holds that the world is divided up into two principles, puruṣa-, which is conscious but inert, and prakr̥ti-, which is unconscious but active. This sentence is a joke. (From Abhinavagupta, not me.)
- Make this sentence passive.
You should be able to read most of the verses under the yaK category in readings, but here are a few suggestions: