Grammar Modules

This page organizes the content of this course into modules for ease of reference.

All content was produced by me unless otherwise noted, and can be shared widely with attribution in accordance with the terms of the CC-BY-SA license.


Video Lessons

This is a list of all of the video lessons we’ve done in this course:

  • personal pronouns:
  • vowel sandhi:
  • visargasandhi 1:
  • visargasandhi 2:
  • constructions (prayōgāḥ):
  • yaK:
  • retroflexion:
  • r̥-stems:
  • n-stems:
  • external consonant sandhi:
  • converbs:
  • present participles:
  • internal consonant sandhi:
  • classes 5, 7, 8, 9:
  • the imperfect:
  • the causative:
  • karmadhāraya compounds:
  • bahuvrīhi compounds:
  • the optative:
  • the perfect:
  • the future:
  • upapadatatpuruṣa compounds:
  • the aorist (part 1):
  • the aorist (part 1):


The Dēvanāgarī Script

Exercises and resources for learning the Dēvanāgarī script.


Nominal Forms

Nouns, adjectives, and pronouns.

  • Charts for all of the nominal declensions covered so far (all vowels except , and s) made by Will Horne (instructions)
  • The Sanskrit Grammarian at the Sanskrit Heritage website, which will generate full paradigms of any nominal stem


Stems Ending in Vowels


Stems Ending in Consonants



The ka-/ta-/ya- series


Verbal Forms

For a classified listing of all verbal roots, see especially Whitney’s Roots, Verb-forms, and Primary Derivatives, which can be downloaded on Internet Archive and searched on the Sanskrit Library.

Another useful reference is the Mādhavīyadhātupāṭhaḥ, also available on the Sanskrit Library, which can be sorted according to class, meaning, form, etc. For convenience, here is the same set of verbal roots as a Google Spreadsheet.

  • Verbal forms in Adhyayanavidhi
  • ārdhadhātukakr̥dantakōśaḥ, a list of all of the verbal roots in Sanskrit with a representative sample of their primary derivatives (nouns, adjectives, and indeclinables formed from them).


The Present System

Second-class (adādiḥ) verbs
  • Conjugating i (parasmaipadam) and adhi-i (ātmanēpadam): google forms, pdf, solutions
  • Conjugating brū and further compounds of i: pdf
The patientive/impersonal suffix yaK


Verbal Nouns, Adjectives and Indeclinables

Participles associated with a particular stem (e.g., present, perfect) should be consulted in the relevant section.




How sounds are transformed when they come into contact with other sounds.

One good resource for learning sandhi is Murray Emeneau’s book, Sanskrit Sandhi and Exercises [Google Books; here is a download link]. Most of the exercises have been converted into online forms (see below).

Another excellent at-a-glance reference is the Arṇanidhi handout made by Somdev Vasudeva.

Here is a general handout on feature spreading in Sanskrit.

Vowel sandhi (acaḥ sandhiḥ or svarasandhiḥ)
(External) consonant sandhi (halaḥ sandhiḥ or vyañjanasandhiḥ)

Emeneau exercises: 3, 4.A, 4.B

Other exercises: here

(External) consonant sandhi (halaḥ sandhiḥ or vyañjanasandhiḥ)

The following exercises are all drawn from Murray Emeneau’s Sanskrit Sandhi and Exercises.

  • 1.A (vowel + vowel between words)
  • 1.B (vowel + vowel within compounds)
  • 2 (visargaḥ)
  • 3 (word-final n)
  • 4.A (word-final stop consonants)
  • 4.B (word-final stop consonants)
  • 5.A (vowel + homorganic vowel word-internally)
  • 5.B (vowel + non-homorganic vowel word-interally)
  • 5.C (vowel + diphthong word-interally)
  • 5.D (diphthong + vowel word-interally)
  • 5.E (high vowel + low vowel word-interally)
  • 6.A (retroflexion)
  • 6.B (retroflexion and other assimilation patterns)
  • 7 (retroflexion of n)
  • 8 (assimilation word-interally)
  • 9.A (assimilation with following t)
  • 9.B (doubling of ch)
  • 9.C (place assimilation of nasals)
  • 9.D (vowel with following s and t, word-internally)
  • 10 (consonant with following s and t, word-internally)
  • 11 (infixation of na/n with endings in s and t)
  • 12 (guṇa of root with a following a [first class verbs])
  • 13.A (root-final consonant followed by s [future])
  • 13.B (root-final consonant followed by s with guṇa [future])
  • 14 (root-final consonant followed by t)
  • 15 (root-final consonant followed by n)
  • 16 (the perfect 3sg and 3pl)