- Understand the formation of the present stem in the nasal classes, i.e., classes 5 and 8, and 7 and 9, in the active voice, in the present and imperfect tenses. Practice them with the exercise below.
Adhyayanavidhiḥ: fifth-class (svādi) verbs; eighth-class (tanādi) verbs; seventh-class (rudhādhi) verbs; ninth-class (kryādi) verbs
Adhyayanavidhiḥ: action nouns
This vocabulary list is also available as a Quizlet set.
1. Verb practice
Translate the following sentences into Sanskrit. Perform sandhi between words. Use the vocabulary from this lesson.
- I don’t know.
- √jñā is optionally ātmanēpadi when intransitive.
- Do you (pl.) know her?
- What are we (pl.) doing?
- He is making (√tan) something.
- One buys, another sells.
- They didn’t know what he did.
- Did you (sg.) hear?
- They (pl.) are picking flowers.
- They reached the house before night.
- Those two are doing something.
- These two are not doing anything.
- I heard a sound.
- They eat standing up.
- He eats sitting down.
- What word did you use?
- They are able to do it.
- You (pl.) are eating.
- Who sold it?
- We (du.) do whatever they say.
- Whoever uses this knowledge attains bliss.
2. Noun practice
Translate the following short phrases into Sanskrit.
- Two names (nom.)
- The king’s many names (nom.)
- The truth (nom.) of the soul
- The king’s dog (acc.)
- At the birth (loc.) of the king
- By the dog (instr.)
- By the self (instr.) and from the self (abl.)
- Of the kings (gen.pl.)
- For the young man (dat.)
- By the two kings (instr.)
- By the actions (instr.) of the young man
- Among the kings (loc.pl.)
- Of the names (gen.pl.)
- For the young men (dat.pl.)
- Of karma and the self (gen.)
- King! (voc.)
- tat kavir akathayad yat trayō rājānō ’kurvan
- bālāsu kusumāny avacinvatīṣu kiṁ karōmītyamanyata rājā
- yaḥ sacchabdān prayuṅktē puruṣaḥ sa mōkṣam āpnōti
- Note that sat (the present participle of √as) can mean “good.”
- śabdāñchr̥ṇōmi tēṣāṁ tvarthānna jānāmi
- śabdāñchr̥ṇvannapi na tēṣāmarthāñjānāmi
- tē mahātmānaḥ satyam ātmanō jānanti
- yadā yuvābhavan nr̥pas tadā nājānād ahaṁ rājāsmīti
- rājagr̥haṁ prāptvāsmadvastūni vyakrīṇīmahi
- śr̥ṇvadbhyaḥ śiṣyēbhya ācāryō bhuñjāna ēvōpadiśati
- apy aśaktimān kavir ētat kāvyaṁ tantum aśaknōt
- na kaścid rājñō nāma prayōktum arhati nāpi mahādēvī
- kiṁ kurma ity acintayan daśa yuvānaḥ
- śunaḥ śabdāñchrutvā svapūrvajanmanō jñānam āpnuta
- yathā karmāṇi puruṣaḥ kurutē tathā phalāni bhuṅktē
- dhanavān ētasmin yūnōktē sarvavittaṁ dattvā dharmaṁ kartum ayatata
- śrutanāmānaṁ rājānaṁ dr̥ṣṭvā tasya karmāṇi svē kāvyē ’dadhāt
First, you should celebrate now that you have learned all ten of the present classes. This means that you should be able to recognize and form the present and imperfect tense of any verb in the Sanskrit language. abhinandanam (congratulations)!